The story of the Museum
The Museum of the Home has its home in the Geffrye Almshouses in Hoxton.
Becoming a museum
The Geffrye Almshouses were built in 1714 by the Ironmongers' Company, with a bequest from Sir Robert Geffrye. The purpose of the almshouses was to provide shelter for those most in need.
Residents lived in the almshouses until 1912.
In 1912 the London County Council (LCC) bought the building and gardens. The main reason was to save the gardens which represented 14% of the open space in Hackney, a densely populated area of London.
Members of the Arts and Crafts movement persuaded the LCC to convert the almshouses into a museum.
On 2 April 1914 the Geffrye Museum opened to the public.
1914: Furniture first
When the Museum opened in 1914, it was a museum of furniture and woodwork. It was a resource for the many local people who worked in the East End furniture industry.
1930s: History of domestic life
In the mid-1930s the focus shifted to a younger audience, particularly school children.
Molly Harrison, an educational pioneer, developed the museum's learning services. She led the way in making museums centres for learning and education.
Marjorie Quennell, the museum curator, created a chronological run of living room displays. These were a unique resource for learning about the history of domestic life and everyday things.
1940s: Keep calm and carry on
The Museum remained open throughout WWII, closing for just a few months for air raid shelters to be built. The shelter dug into Kingsland Gardens held up to 700 people.
Over the years the Museum evolved, presenting paintings, furniture and decorated arts in the context of living rooms.
In the last few decades
An extra wing was added with 20th century period rooms and spaces for learning and exhibitions in 1998. The herb garden and the period gardens were opened to the public in the late 1990s. One of the 14 almshouses was restored to show the living conditions of former residents in the 1780s and 1880s. To reflect the Museum's focus on home and home life, the Museum became the Geffrye Museum of the Home in 2011.
2020: The Museum of the Home
We reopen in 2020 as the Museum of the Home. We will have new galleries and learning spaces, a new café, entrance hub and a collections study room. And our purpose is to reveal and rethink the ways we live and think about home.
The Geffrye Almshouses
What are almshouses?
Almshouses are charitable housing provided to people in need, who belong to a particular community. In this case the residents were associated with the Ironmongers' Company.
The money to build the almshouses came from Sir Robert Geffrye (1613–1703). He was an English merchant, Master of the Ironmonger's Company and Lord Mayor of London.
Geffrye probably made his fortune with the East India Company and the Royal African Company.
The source of Geffrye's fortune raises challenging questions about the origins of our home and around philanthropic giving. The building was most likely built with wealth created from slavery and exploitation.
History of the Geffrye Almshouses
The almshouses were built in 1714 with fourteen houses. Each house had four rooms. Each room usually had just one inhabitant. So there was room for around 50 pensioners.
All rooms came without furniture, residents had to buy their own. They received a pension of £6 per year, 6 bags of coal and free accommodation.
There were four members of staff who lived in the almshouses:
- Chapel clerk
In the 1700s the surrounding area was largely rural. Market gardeners cultivated the land, supplying Londoners with fresh vegetables and herbs.
As London expanded during the 1800s, the area became the hub of London's furniture and clothing trades. Terraced housing, factories and workshops replaced the farmland.
By 1910, the area had become one of the most heavily populated areas of London with severe overcrowding and little sanitation. The Ironmongers' Company decided to sell up and move the residents to the cleaner, safer suburbs in the country.